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Major Novel Strengths
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Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animals Sciences University Ludhiana started functioning with effect from April 21, 2006. With in short period of time, GADVASU has attained excellence in the field of livestock, poultry and fisheries production and health through integrated teaching, research and extension programmes and is producing quality human resources. GADVASU has a number of novel strengths.
Novel Strength I: Modern Infrastructural Facilities
Veterinary Clinical Sciences
- Small Animal Laparoscopy and Endoscopy Units: For diagnosis, therapeutic and surgical interventions in Departments of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Ethics and Jurisprudence and Surgery and Radiology.
- Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory: More than 22,000 animals are registered annually for treatment and advice which included ruminants, equines and small animals. More than 10,000 clinical samples of blood, urine, faecal, body fluids and tissues are submitted to the clinical diagnostic laboratory for pathological (4500), parasitological (3500), biochemical (1500) and microbiological (500) investigations which aid in quick and accurate diagnosis of diseases. Radio-diagnostic facilities such as ultrasound, endoscopy, and digital radiography are available for diagnosis, therapeutic and surgical interventions. Approximately 2500 X-Rays and 1000 ultrasound scans are done every year.
Novel Strength II: Authentic Disease Diagnostic Facilities and Disease
- Surveillance Mechanism: Modern state of the art molecular diagnostics centre has been developed for rapid diagnosis of animal diseases including Brucellosis, Rabies and Parasitic diseases.
- Up gradation of Research Laboratories: The research laboratories various departments of university have been up graded to apply modern diagnostic and research approaches.
- Advanced diagnostic approaches: A significant work has been conducted to assess the ante mortem detection of rabies from hair follicles for the first time in animals by molecular approaches. Sensitivity of detection of rabies by real time PCR was 62.5% and of skin biopsy samples was 71.4% respectively.
- Immunohistochemistry has been established as more sensitive for detection of Rabies antigen in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections.
- Diagnosis of Brucellosis was also conducted by PCR. Biotyping of 11 isolates revealed 8 biotypes 1, two isolates of biotype 3 and one isolate of biotype 2.
- Epidemiology study of gastrointestinal parasites in Punjab was conducted on faecal samples wherein eggs/oocysts of T. vitulorum, Strongyloides spp., Eimeria spp. and Moniezia spp. were found.
- Prevalence of Theileria annulata in tick vectors in Punjab was found to be higher in female ticks as well as in hot / dry climate.
- Heat shock gene 70 has been cloned, sequences and characterized vis-à-vis heat stress in buffaloes. Major Histocompatability locus’s polymorphism and its relationship with growth and viability of broiler chickens.
- Ultrasonography was standardized for the diagnosis of intestinal, hepatic, splenic and renal affections in the dairy animals. Ti is found that ultrasound could successfully diagnose and differentiate omasal impaction, abomasal impaction/dilatation, reticular abscess, reticulophrenic adhesions, focal and diffused peritonitis and Pericarditis. Modified technique of rumenotomy was standardized to treat recumbent animals suffering from acidosis.
- A significant work has been conducted to assess the ante mortem detection of rabies with high sensitivity from hair follicles for the first time in animals by molecular approaches. For diagnosis of rabies, Immunohistochemistry which is more sensitive for detection of Rabies antigen in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections has been established.
- Diagnosis of Brucellosis was also conducted by PCR. Biotyping of 11 isolates revealed 8 biotypes 1, two isolates of biotype 3 and one isolate of biotype 2.
- Requisite infra-structure has been established to conduct epidemiological studies especially of gastrointestinal parasites in Punjab on faecal samples. In such studies, eggs/oocysts of T. vitulorum, Strongyloides spp., Eimeria spp. and Moniezia spp. have been found.
- FMD outbreaks recorded in State & all the outbreaks were caused by serotype-A.
- Plant poisonings viz. Nitrate / Nitrite poisonings, Oxalates and cyanide poisonings in dairy animals were recorded in Punjab state. In clinical outbreaks of nitrate/nitrite poisoning recorded, fodder samples were found to have > 2500 ppm of NO3-N content on dry matter basis.
- Surveillance of other diseases viz. Swine fever, Listeriosis, Tuberculosis, Theileriosis, Babesiosis and Trypanosomiasis recorded.
- In surveillance of tuberculosis in 2009, wherein 578 cattle and 457 buffaloes from different districts of Punjab were screened using single intra-dermal test.34 (5.88%) cattle and 11 (2.40%) buffaloes were found to be positive. For JOHNE’S DISEASE, 578 cattle and 445 buffaloes were screened from different districts of Punjab. Only 6(1.03%) cows and 14 (3.14%) buffaloes were found to be positive.
- Surveillance of skin affections in fish was found to be 27.61%
- Study of poultry diseases revealed important diseases of poultry including Ascites syndrome, Hydro pericardium Syndrome, Mareck’s Diseases, Avian Encephalomyelitis, Oophoritis , Colisepticemia, Yolk sac Infection, Infectious Coryza, Egg peritonitis, Fibrinous Peri-hepatitis and Pericarditis, Egg Bound Condition, CRD, Salpingitis, Air saccculitis, Brooder Pneumonia Nephrosis, fatty Liver Syndrome, Coccidiosis, Osteomalacia, Rickets, Heat stroke and Visceral Gout.
- Molecular characterization of specific genes of Bovine Salmonellosis indicated that Inv-A and Stn genes were widely distributed.17 (65.38%) isolates carry sop E gene and 24 (92.31%) isolates carry Hil gene.
- A total of 890 cattle and 636 buffaloes were examined from different districts of Punjab state, with an overall prevalence of 85.28 and 57.10 per cent Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, 20.45 and 52.20 per cent Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum.
- Titers of antibodies against Pasteurella multocida in the sera of buffaloes vaccinated for HS were determined by ELISA, MAT and IHA. There was a significant decline in titers after 1 ½ months and 3months post vaccination (pv) indicating vaccination failure.
- Titers of antibodies against FMD virus serotypes O, A & Asia 1 in FMD vaccinated buffaloes at various intervals up to 14 days pv were determined by LPB-ELISA. The differences were non-significant and the titers were below the protective level. A simple and cheap pen side kit for the detection of FMDV serotype in an outbreak based on a new multiplex latex agglutination using multicolour beads was developed for the first time.
- Concurrent infection of Blue Tongue and FMD in cattle was recorded for the first time. This was suspected to be one of the possible factors for FMD vaccination failure and death in FMD affected animals.
- On the basis of RBPT and STAT test, overall prevalence of Brucellosis came out to be 32.03% maximum no. of samples was received in month of March with 162 samples positive for Brucellosis by RBPT & STAT.
- Incidence of bovine tuberculosis was studied by screening cattle and buffaloes from different districts of Punjab using single intra-dermal test. About (5.88%) cattle and (2.40%) buffaloes were found to be positive.
- In the year 2009-10, 6 outbreaks of FMD in different villages of Punjab were recorded and many outbreaks remained unreported. Epidemiology studies revealed re-emergence of disease on large scale. Out of 1198 animals in different farms of state, 221 animals were affected and 9 deaths recorded.
- One outbreak of swine fever in pig farm was recorded. There were 40 animals in this farm, 12 were affected and 7 succumbed to disease.
- Surgical infections of the abdomen were diagnosed in 283 cows and buffaloes with a primary complaint of inappetance or anorexia and absence of faecal output. Omasal impaction was found to be associated with advanced pregnancy or early lactation was associated with majority of the abdominal disorders. The information from 5 different district Co-operative milk plants was collected on milk procurement pattern its quantity and value, price of raw milk procured, quality of raw milk, development of milk into different processed milk products, utilization pattern. Approximately 90% of milk is processed as STD milk, DTM and FCM in all the plants. The services provided by the milk plants such as AI facility, Bulk milk coolers & automatic milk collection units has increased manifold in the last 5 years.
- A survey of the central districts of Punjab and sub-mountainous regions revealed that there is a widespread subclinical deficiency of Ca, P, Cu, I and Zn in both cattle and buffaloes. A comparatively higher prevalence of I deficiency has been recorded in cattle than in buffaloes. However, Fluorosis is endemic in dairy animals in four south-western districts of Punjab.
- Experimental models for specific mineral deficiencies (Ca, P, Cu, Zn) and toxicities (Mo, Se, & Pb) established in ruminants.
- Inter-relationship of mineral imbalances in soil-plant-animal system established.
- Identified diagnostic tests for early diagnosis of subclinical mastitis.
- Subclinical mastitis markedly affects the milk quality viz. significant decline in levels of calcium, lactose, butter fat and solid-not-fat and increase in undesirable milk components such as somatic cells as bacteria.
- Intra-mammary dry therapy in each quarter once before drying off highly effective in control of mastitis in dairy animals.
- Post-milking teat dipping with 0.5% iodine-glycerine or 0.5% chlorhexidine-glycerine teat dip highly effective in prevention of mastitis and treatment of teat lesions.
- Developed bromothymol blue (BTB) card test for early diagnosis of subclinical and clinical mastitis, and thus for effective treatment and control.
Novel Strength III: Improvement in Animal Productivity
- Availability of livestock germ-plasm of high quality especially elite buffaloes and crossbred cattle herds (with an average lactation yield of around 2400kg and 6000kg respectively) are among the best performing institutional herds in India for research in genetic up gradation of elite germ-plasm through intense selection and progeny testing programme.
- High yielding stocks of layer, broilers and Japanese quail have been released for commercial use.
- The university has developed technology for value addition of livestock products esp. poultry, fish, dairy and meat products and GADVASU has also developed, packaging and preservation techniques for extended shelf-life various livestock products of poultry, mutton, goat meat, eggs and milk origin.
- The buffalo and cattle herds of the GADVASU are among the best performing institutional herds in India. The university is maintaining herds of elite buffaloes (296), crossbred cattle (173), Beetal goats (200), pigs (15), layers (3600), broilers (5100) and quails (2850) for research in genetic up gradation of elite germ plasm through selection and/or progeny testing programmes.
- The university has developed genetically improved stocks with production potentials of more than 10,000 lts of milk (305 days) in crossbred cattle, 4625 lts of milk in buffaloes (305 days), 270 eggs in RIR and a body weight of 1700 g in broilers and 240 g in quails at 6 weeks of age.
- A crossbred cow with highest lactation in the country (10,493 lts in 305 days) has been produced.
- The lowest average age of 21 months for collection of semen and the lowest average age of 36 months at first calving in Murrah buffaloes has been achieved through progeny testing and better management of animals.
- A cross line of WLH under the patent name ‘Satluj Layer’ has been developed and released for commercial use. A commercial broiler stock of IBL-80 has been developed, released and accepted at National level.
- A strain of white Japanese quail, a delicacy having medicinal value has been developed and released for commercial use, and is getting very popular in the State.
- Application of technologies of cryo-preservation and embryo transfer to enhance the rate of genetic improvement in dairy cattle and buffaloes is in practice.
- The university has produced a total of 7,54,274 doses (Liquid- 3,11,454 and Frozen- 4,42,820) of semen from crossbred bulls and 2,60,911 doses of semen from buffaloes bulls for genetic improvement of these species in Punjab and the neighbouring states.
- More than 15,000 doses of semen of proven progeny tested buffaloes bulls up to 42.4% superiority are available at the rate of Rs 100 per dose.
- To-date 9 elite calves (5 at Ludhiana, 1 at Patiala & 3 in the field) have been produced and 14 recipient cows are pregnant through embryo transfer and 21 veterinary officers of the state animal husbandry department have been trained in the technique of embryo transfer technology.
- Non surgical embryo transfer was attempted in crossbreed cows at Ludhiana and Patiala centres respectively. A total of 90 transferable embryos were frozen.
Novel Strength IV: Need Based Research for Punjab
- About 1.25 lakh ha of land in south-west districts of Punjab (Mukatsar, Ferozepur, Faridkot, Bathinda and Mansa) are affected by salinity and water logging. Prolonged water logging and continuous evaporation of water has resulted in heavy accumulation of salts which has made the land unfit for crop production.
- GADVASU, Ludhiana has developed and demonstrated technology to produce fish in such land. Carp productivity of 2.5 ton/ha/yr has been achieved by manipulation of salinity through addition of canal water (with salinity below 10 ppt) in south-western Punjab, thus ensuring the earning of Rs 75,000-90,000 per hectare from their zero earning land.
- The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has sanctioned a prestigious Niche Area Excellence Project in Fisheries to undertake region-specific research for sustainable growth of aquaculture in Punjab with major focus on developing suitable aquaculture package for Inland Saline waters/waterlogged areas in the south-west districts and diversification of carp culture with high value species. Azolla culture demonstration unit and duckweed based bioremediation technology were developed and were evaluated for their utilization as livestock feed.
- Rearing of brood stock and breeding of common carp in these waters has been established. Carp seed produced in saline water is expected to grow faster than the seed procured from freshwater.
- Low cost fish feeds formulated by using non-conventional feed resources (pressmud, molasses, poultry hatchery waste) which reduced the feed cost by 25-50%.
- The technology developed by the university has already been accepted by the Punjab State Farmer’s Commission and certain NGO’s for its wider application in the State and elsewhere.
- High degree of Acaricide resistance was found in Rhipicephalus microplus with Deltamethrin (96.6%) and Cypermethrine (93.3%).
- Study of antibiotic sensitivity of Brucella abortus revealed 100% sensitivity to tetracycline and ampicillin. It was found to be resistant to penicillin.
- The drug sensitivity test against almost all bacterial isolates from the skin affections in fish sensitivity revealed that chloramphenical was the drug of choice
RESIDUE ANALYSIS IN THE FOOD OF ANIMAL ORIGIN:
- Pesticides residue analysis laboratory has been established fully equipped with GC, HPLC, and GC-MS. The multiple residue methods for milk, meat, water, ghee, animal concentrate feed, green fodder and water have been standardized. The predominant pesticide residues encountered in samples are of DDT, its metabolite, HCH and endosulfan, etc. The residue work have been initiated in fish, fish feed and fish pond water samples.
- The research on food borne pathogens and food safety in food samples of animal origin revealed shigatoxic Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic Aeromonas species, pathogenic Bacillus cereus, etc. These pathogens were also molecularly characterized for their virulence potential and drug resistance genes. The research studies revealed that food borne pathogens pose a potential threat to public health.
- Fipronil insecticide produced mild toxicosis and fluoride significant toxicosis in buffalo calves. However, the combined exposure of Fipronil and fluoride markedly enhanced the toxicosis in buffaloes with significant changes in toxicological, oxidative stress and biochemical parameters.
- Research on various parasitic zoonotic diseases viz. Echinococcosis, Cysticercosis, Cryptosporidiosis, Giardiasis conducted. The epidemiological studies on swine Cysticercosis and associated risk factors conducted.
- Seroprevalence studies on human hydatidoses were carried out. Samples have been collected from patients visiting Civil Medical Hospital Ludhiana, veterinary doctors, dairy farmers and dog handlers. Echinococcus IgG ELISA for E. granulosus and E. multilocularis was performed which indicated high prevalence.
- Prevalence studies on Cryptosporidium and Giardia intestinalis have been conducted. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected from both diarrheic as well as non-diarrheic animals. Both shedding and intensity of shedding were significant in calves with diarrhea. The prevalence of the infection peaked in young calves between 0 and 30 days in both the diarrheic and non-diarrheic groups (86.4 and 66.6%, respectively).
- Advances in animal nutrition includes Uromin-Lick, Rumen protected fat, natural fermented straw and silage from maize fodder.
- Identified areas specific mineral imbalances in dairy animals in different regions of Punjab will be helpful in formulation of area specific mineral mixtures for different regions to improve production, reproduction and health of dairy animals.
Power Generation from Dairy Waste:
- The plant was set-up to curb environmental degradation and add valuable products back to the environment as the raw dung is being used as a fertilizer.
- The university saves Rs 1, 71,000 a month in the form of electricity, slurry and carbon dioxide.
- About 200 units of electricity (per day) are generated through the recently started biogas plant at the animal varsity and latter has been able to save up to Rs 1,000 daily. It saves
AREAS OF COLLABORATION AND FUTURE PROJECTIONS
- Development protocols of super-ovulation, embryo collection, transfer and micromanipulation of embryos, cloning, sexing of semen and embryos for the production of superior germplasm.
- An ICAR experiential learning project on “Development, storage and marketing of value added meat products” has been initiated in the Department of Livestock Products Technology with a total cost of Rs.67 lacs under which training will be given to the students of Veterinary Science to make them proficient in future for employment.
- An Animal Disease Registry and Tissue Bank is being established to develop disease data base to cater to the regional and national needs of integrated and advanced diagnostics and developing diagnostic assays, kits and procedures.
- State of the art multi disciplinary specialized clinical units for small animals, dairy animals and equines are being developed.
- Advanced diagnostic centre for Animal Health of International Standard is being established.
- A central Cybrary with multimedia information systems/video conference established and integrated University Management System is being developed.
- Vision 2020 document, a perspective plan of GADVASU, is being finalized to provide a road map for the orderly and systematic growth and to provide directions for the future development of the Veterinary, Animal, Dairy & Fisheries sciences in the Punjab State and in the region.
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